Documentation Documentation
Identifiant IdRef : 213319160
Notice de type Rameau

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Langue d'expression : Francais
Date de naissance :  1992
Note publique d''information : 
AUX XVIIE ET XVIIIE SIECLES, L'ENSEIGNEMENT DEPEND DE L'EGLISE EN FRANCE, TANDIS QU'EN CHINE, IL RELEVE DE L'ETAT. LES ECOLES PRIMAIRES FRANCAISES ET CHINOISES JOUENT APPAREMMENT UN ROLE SEMBLABLE: L'APPRENTISSAGE DE LA LECTURE, DE L'ECRITURE, DU CALCUL ET DE LA POLITESSE. MAIS LA PREMIERE FONCTION DES ECOLES FRANCAISES EST LA FORMATION CHRETIENNE ET CELLE DES ECOLES CHINOISES EST L'EDUCATION MORALE BASEE SUR LE FONCTIONNEMENT. L'INSTRUCTION SECONDAIRE RESTE LITTERAIRE EN FRANCE AUSSI BIEN QU'EN CHINE. LE LATIN TIENT UNE PLACE PRIMORDIALE DANS LES COLLEGES FRANCAIS, ALORS QUE LES LIVRES CLASSIQUES CONSTITUENT LES MATIERES PRINCIPALES POUR LES ELEVES CHINOIS. POURTANT, VERS LE MILIEU DU XVIIIE SIECLE, ON ASSISTE A UNE EVOLUTION EN FRANCE : LA PROMOTION DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT DU FRANCAIS ET DES SCIENCES ET LA NAISSANCE DE NOUVEAUX MODELES QUI DONNENT UNE FORMATION PRATIQUE, UTILITAIRE ET PROFESSIONNELLE. QUANT A L'ENSEIGNEMENT SUPERIEUR, LA FRANCE SE PARTICULARISE PAR SES UNIVERSITES OU L'ON S'INSTRUIT DANS LA THEOLOGIE, LA MEDECINE ET LE DROIT, ET PAR QUELQUES GRANDES ECOLES TECHNIQUES ET MILITAIRES. EN CHINE, LES ECOLES SUPERIEURES LOCALES ET LE COLLEGE IMPERIAL DE PEKIN SONT DESTINES A FORMER DES FONCTIONNAIRES; A COTE DE CES ETABLISSEMENTS, IL EXISTE TROIS ECOLES SPECIALES OU L'ON ETUDIE LES MATHEMATIQUES, LA MEDECINE ET L'ASTRONOMIE. LES CONNAISSANCES TECHNIQUES SE TRANSMETTENT EN DEHORS DES ECOLES. L'ENSEIGNEMENT EN CHINE SE CARACTERISE PAR LES CONCOURS D'ETAT QUI ABOUTISSENT AUX HONNEURS ET AU PRESTIGE SOCIAL, ET AUXQUELS TOUTES LES INSTITUTIONS SCOLAIRES SONT DESTINEES A PREPARER LES ELEVES.

Note publique d''information : 
IN THE 17TH AND 18TH CENTURY, THE EDUCATION IN FRANCE WAS CONTROLLED BY THE CHURCH, WHEREAS IN CHINA, IT DEPENDED ON THE STATE. OBVIOUSLY, FRENCH AND CHINESE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS HAD VERY SIMILAR PURPOSES : TEACHING RO READ, TO WRITE, TO CALCULATE AND TO BE POLITE. HOWEVER, THE FIRST FUNCTION OF THE FRENCH SCHOOLS WAS TO GIVE CHRISTIAN EDUCATION, AND THAT OF THE CHINESE ONES TO GIVE MORAL EDUCATION BASED ON CONFUCIANISM. THE SECONDARY SCHOOLING REMAINED LITERARY BOTH IN FRANCE AND IN CHINA. THE LATIN WAS OF THE UTMOST IMPORTANCE IN FRENCH HIGH SCHOOLS, WHEREAS THE CLASSIC BOOKS WERE THE MAIN SUBJECT FOR THE CHINESE SECONDARY SCHOOLBOYS. TOWARDS THE MIDDLE OF THE 18TH CENTURY, AN EVOLUTION TOOK PLACE IN FRANCE : THE TEACHING OF FRENCH AND SCIENCES WAS PROMOTED AND NEW MODELS, OFFERING PRACTICAL, UTILITATIAN AND PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION, WERE CREATED. IN THE FIELD OF HIGHER EDUCATION, FRANCE WAS KNOWN FOR ITS UNIVERSITIES, WHERE THEOLOGY, MEDICINE AND LAW WERE STUDIED, AS WELL AS FOR SOME TECHNICAL AND MILITARY COLLEGES. IN CHINA, LOCAL COLLEGES AND THE IMPERIAL COLLEGE OF BEIJING WERE DESIGNED FOR THE TRAINING OF THE STATE OFFICIALS; BESIDES THESE, THERE WERE THREE SPECIAL SCHOOLS WHERE MATHEMATICS, MEDICINE AND ASTRONOMY WERE STUDIED. TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE WAS TRANSMITTED OUT OF THE SCHOOLS. THE EDUCATION IN CHINA WAS CHARACTERIZED BY STATE EXAMINATIONS WHICH RESULTED IN HONOR AND SOCIAL PRESTIGE; ALL SCHOOLS WERE DESIGNED TO PREPARE STUDENTS FOR THESE EXAMINATIONS.

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Che , Lili

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